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NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 1 Notes & Solutions

The major nutrients in our food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers, and water. A balanced diet provides all necessary nutrients, including roughage and water. Prolonged deficiency in these nutrients can lead to specific diseases or disorders.


The food we intake on daily basis is usually made up of one or more ingredients, which we get from plants or animals. These are the components that are needed by our body and are called as nutrients.

Type of Nutrients:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Proteins
  3. Fats
  4. Vitamins
  5. And minerals

Additional Components of Food:

Every food also contains dietary fibres and water which are also needed by our body.

Test for Starch:

  • Take a small quantity of a food item or a raw ingredient
  • Put 2-3 drops of dilute iodine solution on it
  • If it turns blue-black colour, then it contains starch

Test for Protein:

  • Make a paste or powder of the food that you want to test
  • Add 10 drops of water and mix it.
  • Now, using a dropper, add two drops of solution of copper sulphate and ten drops of solution of caustic soda to it.
  • Shake well and keep it for few minutes.
  • If turns violet, the food item contains proteins.

Test for Fats:

  • Take a small quantity of a food item.
  • Wrap it in a piece of paper and crush it.
  • Now, check if there is an oil patch in that paper, it shows that the food item contains fat.

What do various nutrients do for our body?

  • Carbohydrates – Provides energy to our food. Called as “energy giving foods”.
  • Fats – Give much more energy as compared to the same amount of carbohydrates. Called as “energy giving foods”.
  • Proteins – Needed for the growth and repair of our body. Called as ‘body building foods’.
  • Vitamins – Help in protecting our body against diseases and keeping our eyes, bones, teeth and gums healthy.

Type of Vitamins:

  • Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and K.
  • Vitamin B-complex is a group of vitamins.

Carbohydrate rich food:

Rice has more carbohydrates than other nutrients. Thus, we say that rice is a “carbohydrate rich” source of food.

Dietary fibres:

  • Dietary fibers are often called “roughage,” and they come from plant-based foods in our diet.
  • Foods like whole grains, pulses (like beans and lentils), potatoes, fresh fruits, and vegetables are the main sources of roughage.
  • Roughage doesn’t provide any nutrients to our body, but it’s a crucial part of our diet because it adds bulk to our food and helps our body eliminate undigested food.

Role of water in our body:

  • It helps us absorb nutrients from the food we eat.
  • It helps us get rid of waste through urine and sweat.
  • Usually, we get the water our body needs from the liquids we drink, like water, milk, and tea.

Balanced Diet:

The diet which contains all the nutrients that our body needs, in right quantities along with a good amount of roughage and water is called as a balanced diet.


Eating too much of fat rich foods may lead us to suffer from a condition called obesity.

Deficiency Diseases:

Diseases that occur due to lack of nutrients over a long period are called deficiency diseases.

  • Protein Deficiency – stunted growth, swelling of face, discolouration of hair, skin diseases and diarrhoea.
  • Carbohydrate and Protein Deficiency – the growth may stop completely and person becomes very weak.
  • Vitamin A – Loss of vision.
  • Vitamin B1 – Beriberi, which leads to weak muscles and little energy to work.
  • Vitamin C – Scurvy, which leads to bleeding gums and wound takes longer time to heal.
  • Vitamin D – Rickets, leads to weak bones.
  • Calcium – Bone and Tooth Decay
  • Iodine – Goiter, leads to swollen glands at the neck and mental disability.
  • Iron – Anaemia or weakness


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